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中英文视频:碳水化合物如何影响你的健康的?

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发表于 5 天前 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
碳水化合物是一类可以通过你的身体,被分解生成糖类的物质。在你的日常饮食中,不管你的食物尝起来甜不甜,糖就是糖,摄入过多的碳水化合物会引发健康问题。那么,碳水化合物如何影响健康呢?看完后再决定吃什么吧。


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中英文对照翻译


Which of these has the least carbohydrates? This roll of bread? This bowl of rice? Or this can of soda? It s a trick question. Although they may differ in fats, vitamins, and other nutritional content, when it comes to carbs, they re pretty much the same. So what exactly does that mean for your diet? First of all, carbohydrate is the nutritional category for sugars and molecules that your body breaks down to make sugars. Carbohydrates can be simple or complex depending on their structure.
这些(食物)中哪些含碳水化合物最少呢?这卷面包?这碗米饭?或者这罐苏打水?这是一个很难的问题。尽管它们的脂肪、维生素和其他营养物质的含量不同,但碳水化合物的含量几乎是相同的。那么这对于你的饮食意味着什么呢?首先,碳水化合物是一类可以通过你的身体被分解生成糖类的物质。根据其结构不同,碳水化合物可以很简单,也可以很复杂。


This is a simple sugar, or monosaccharide. Glucose, fructose, and galactose are all simple sugars. Link two of them together, and you ve got a disaccharide, lactose, maltose, or sucrose. Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand, have three or more simple sugars strung together. Complex carbohydrates with three to ten linked sugars are oligosaccharides. Those with more than ten are polysaccharides.
这是一种结构简单的糖,或者叫单糖。葡萄糖,果糖,半乳糖都是结构简单的糖,把这些糖中的其中两种连接起来,你就得到了二糖,乳糖,麦芽糖或者蔗糖。另一方面,复合碳水化合物是由两种或者三种单糖形成的。由3到10个糖分子连接起来的复合碳水化合物,称为低聚糖。由多于10个糖分子组成的那些称为多聚糖。


During digestion, your body breaks down those complex carbohydrates into their monosaccharide building blocks, which your cells can use for energy. So when you eat any carbohydrate-rich food, the sugar level in your blood, normally about a teaspoon, goes up.
在消化的过程中你的身体把那些复合碳水化合物分解成它们的单糖单元,你的细胞可以利用这些单糖来获得能量。因此当你吃任何富含碳水化合物的食物时,你的血糖含量——正常情况下大概一茶匙——就会上升。


But your digestive tract doesn t respond to all carbohydrates the same. Consider starch and fiber, both polysaccharides, both derived from plants, both composed of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides joined together, but they re joined together differently, and that changes the effect they have on your body.
但是你的消化道并不是对所有的碳水化合物都有一样的反应。拿淀粉和纤维来说,它们都是多糖,都是从植物中获得的,也都由成百上千个单糖连接而成,但是它们的连接方式不同,这就改变了它们对你身体的影响。


In starches, which plants mostly store for energy in roots and seeds, glucose molecules are joined together by alpha linkages, most of which can be easily cleaved by enzymes in your digestive tract. But in fiber, the bonds between monosaccharide molecules are beta bonds, which your body can t break down. Fiber can also trap some starches, preventing them from being cleaved, resulting in something called resistant starch.
淀粉,是植物通常在根或者种子中存储能量的形式,葡萄糖分子是α键连接在一起的,大部分这种键可以很容易被你消化道中的酶断开,但是在纤维中,单糖分子之间的键是β键,你的身体不能分解它。纤维也可以捕捉到一些淀粉,避免其被分解,生成一些被称为抗性淀粉的东西。


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So foods high in starch, like crackers and white bread, are digested easily, quickly releasing a whole bunch of glucose into your blood, exactly what would happen if you drank something high in glucose, like soda. These foods have a high glycemic index, the amount that a particular food raises the sugar level in your blood. Soda and white bread have a similar glycemic index because they have a similar effect on your blood sugar.
因此淀粉含量高的食物,比如薄脆饼干和白面包,就很容易消化,快速地释放大量葡萄糖到你的血液里,就好比你喝了一些葡萄糖含量高的饮料,比如苏打水。这些食物都有很高的血糖指数,也就是某一种食物升高血糖含量的数值。苏打水和白面包有相似的血糖指数,因为它们对你的血糖含量有相似的影响。


But when you eat foods high in fiber, like vegetables, fruits, and whole grains, those indigestible beta bonds slow the release of glucose into the blood. Those foods have a lower glycemic index, and foods like eggs, cheese, and meats have the lowest glycemic index. When sugar moves from the digestive tract to the blood stream, your body kicks into action to transfer it into your tissues where it can be processed and used for energy. Insulin, a hormone synthesized in the pancreas, is one of the body s main tools for sugar management.
但是当你吃富含纤维的食物比如蔬菜、水果,还有全麦时,那些难消化的β键会减慢葡萄糖释放到血液中的过程。那些食物的血糖指数就低一些,像鸡蛋、奶酪还有肉这些食物的血糖指数就是最低的。当糖从消化道进入到血管中时,你的身体就会开始将糖转运到身体组织中,在这里糖会被处理生成能量。胰岛素,一种在胰腺中合成的荷尔蒙,是身体中一种主要的血糖管理工具。


When you eat and your blood sugar rises, insulin is secreted into the blood. It prompts your muscle and fat cells to let glucose in and jump starts the conversion of sugar to energy. The degree to which a unit of insulin lowers the blood sugar helps us understand something called insulin sensitivity.
当你吃东西导致血糖升高的时候,胰岛素会被分泌到血液中。它促进你的肌肉和脂肪细胞吸收葡萄糖,并且快速开始从糖到能量的转换。单微量的胰岛素降低血糖的程度能帮助我们理解所谓的胰岛素敏感性。


The more a given unit of insulin lowers blood sugar, the more sensitive you are to insulin. If insulin sensitivity goes down, that s known as insulin resistance. The pancreas still sends out insulin, but cells, especially muscle cells, are less and less responsive to it, so blood sugar fails to decrease, and blood insulin continues to rise.
给定单位量的胰岛素降低的血糖浓度越多,就说明你对胰岛素越敏感。如果胰岛素敏感度降低,就被称为胰岛素抗性。胰腺仍然会释放胰岛素,但是细胞,特别是肌肉细胞,对胰岛素做出的反应越来越少,因此血糖浓度无法降低,而血液中胰岛素还会持续增加。


Chronically consuming a lot of carbohydrates may lead to insulin resistance, and many scientists believe that insulin resistance leads to a serious condition called metabolic syndrome. That involves a constellation of symptoms, including high blood sugar, increased waist circumference, and high blood pressure.
长期摄入大量碳水化合物可能会导致胰岛素抗性,许多科学家们相信胰岛素抗性会导致一种严重的病,叫做代谢综合症。代谢综合征有许多症状,包括高血糖,变大的腰围,和高血压。


It increases the risk of developing conditions, like cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes. And its prevalence is rapidly increasing all over the world. As much as 32% of the population in the U.S. has metabolic syndrome. So let s get back to your diet. Whether your food tastes sweet or not, sugar is sugar, and too many carbs can be a problem. So maybe you ll want to take a pass on that pasta sushi roll pita burrito donut burger sandwich.
它增加了患病的风险,比如心血管疾病和II型糖尿病。代谢综合征的患病率在全球范围内增长迅速。多达32%的美国人患有代谢综合症。再回到你的日常饮食吧。不管你的食物尝起来甜不甜,糖就是糖,摄入过多的碳水化合物会引发健康问题。那么你也许不会再选择吃意大利面,寿司,皮塔饼,墨西哥玉米卷,甜甜圈,汉堡和三明治了吧。


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