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考生必知的12则新SAT标准英语用法规则

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发表于 2020-7-23 13:30:55 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
为了让参加SAT考试的备考生对SAT标准英语用法规则有一个全新的认识。近日,SAT考试官方将一些单纯的语法知识点进行了归类,并得出了12则新SAT标准英语用法规则。官网还要求考生严格按照这12则规则进行系统的学习。

SAT文法部分几乎有一半的考点考查的都是单纯的语法知识点,例如主谓一致、动词的时态语态、平行结构、比较结构、代词指代问题等,官方指南中将这个部分称为「标准英语用法」。这些考点属于「知识类」考点,即只要考生能掌握相关知识点便可以把考查这个知识点的题目做对。
1、Select the Correct Word Based on the Context of the Given Sentence

根据给定句子的语境选择正确的单词
Word choice questions are common on the SAT. A word will be underlined, and based on the context, you have to select the best word to complete the sentence. These questions can be difficult because they require knowledge of vocabulary.
单词选择题在SAT上很常见。一个单词将被加下划线,并根据上下文,你必须选择最好的单词来完成句子。这些问题可能是困难的,因为他们需要词汇的知识。
Type #1: Homophones(类型1:同音)
Homophones are words that sound the same but have different meanings. Here are some examples of homophones that have appeared on the practice SATs: fare/fair, cite/sight/site, then/than, there/their/they're, and its/it’s. You should know what each of these words means and how it's used.(同音异义字声音相同但意思不同的单词。这里有一些已经出现在实践SATS同音的例子:fare/fair, cite/sight/site, then/than, there/their/they're, and its/it’s。你应该知道这些词都是与如何使用。)
例题:
[1]More like a 38 fair then an actual cafe,the first Repair Cafe took place in Amsterdam,the Netherlands.
[2]It was the brainchild of former joumalist Martine Postma,39 wanting to take a practical stand in a throwaway culture.
A、NO CHANGE
B、fair than
C、fare than
D、fair,then
The sentence is comparing the cafe to a fair. Based on the context, the word “fair,” which means an exhibition, usually with food and entertainment, is correct. There are multiple meanings of the word “fare,” but it often refers to the money you pay for transportation, as in “bus fare.” Clearly, the word “fare” doesn’t make sense in this context, so you can immediately eliminate answer choice C.(这句话是把咖啡馆比喻成一个集市。根据上下文,“fair”这个词的意思是一个展览,通常有食物和娱乐,是正确的。“Ticket Price”一词有多种含义,但它通常指的是你为交通运输而付的钱,如“公共汽车费”。显然,“Ticket Price”这个词在这种情况下是没有意义的,所以你可以立即取消答案选择C。)
Next, we need to determine if we should use “then” or “than.” You use the word “than” to make comparisons and “then” to refer to time. Because the sentence is comparing the cafe to a fair, the correct answer is B.(接下来,我们需要确定是否应该使用“Then”或“than”。你用“than”来比较,Then用“时间”来表示时间。因为这句话是比较咖啡馆公平,正确的答案是B。)
cite/site/sight/
·To cite(v.)somenone's words means to quote or refer to the words,say/write what the other person/book said.
·The word site(n.)means a location,either a physical place or a website.
·The word sight(n.)refers to the ability to see with your eyes.
cite:引用的意思,引用或参考别人的话,说/写别人或者别的书说的话。
site:指的是地点,现实中的地点,或者是网络上的站点。
sight:指的是视力,你眼睛看东西的能力。
Type #2: Related Words(类型2:相关词汇)
The second type of word choice error involves synonyms or related words. A word will be underlined and the answer choices will be related words. However, only one word will be correct given the context of the sentence.(第二种类型的选词错误涉及同义词或相关词。一个词将被强调,答案的选择将是相关的词。然而,只有一个词在句子的上下文中是正确的。)
例题:
These cats are so cherished by the museum that officials recently 40 decreed original paintings to be made of six of them.In each,a cat is depicted upright in a......
A、No CHANGE
B、commissioned
C、forced
D、licensed
For these types of questions, I like to quickly go through each choice to see which one makes the most sense given the context. Based on the context of this sentence, we’re looking for a word that indicates that the officials gave permission for the cat paintings to be made.(对于这些类型的问题,我喜欢快速地进行每个选择,看看哪一个在上下文中最有意义。根据这句话的上下文,我们在寻找一个词,表明官员们允许制作猫画。)
The word “forced” sounds too strong in this context, and generally, you don’t “license” a painting to be made. The word “decreed,” which means to order or command, also seems too harsh given the context. The word “commissioned” can mean hiring an artist to create a work. It’s the only word that’s typically used with artwork, and it’s the most appropriate word for this sentence. The correct answer is B.(在这种情况下,“forced”这个词听起来太强了,一般来说,你不会“license”一幅画的制作。“decreed”这个词指的是命令或命令,在上下文中也显得过于苛刻。“commissioned”一词可能意味着雇一位艺术家来创作作品。这是唯一一个与艺术作品一起使用的词,它是这个句子最合适的词。正确的答案是B。)
2、Use the Fewest Words Possible

尽可能使用最少的单词
Typically, the shortest grammatically correct answer choice that expresses the same information as the original sentence will be the right answer. Shorter sentences are more concise and easier to understand. On the SAT, words or phrases may be unnecessarily added to a sentence.
通常,表达与原始句子相同的信息的最短语法正确的答案选择将是正确的答案。更短的句子更简洁,更容易理解。在SAT上,单词或短语可能会不必要地添加到句子中。
Every year, Jane runs the Los Angeles Marathon annually.(每年,简每年都要参加洛杉矶马拉松比赛。)
In this sentence, the word “annually” means that she runs the marathon every year. Because the sentence starts with “every year,” the word “annually” is unnecessary. It doesn’t add any new information to the sentence, and it should be eliminated.(在这句话中,“every year”一词意味着她每年都要参加马拉松比赛。因为这个句子以“annually”开头,“every year”这个词是不必要的。它不会给句子增加任何新的信息,而且应该被消除。)
Here’s another example of a wordy sentence:(这里的另一个例子,一个冗长的句子:)
George is a person who is angry in nature.(乔治是个脾气很坏的人。)
This is a corrected version of the sentence:(这是句子的修正版本:)
George is an angry person.(乔治是个生气的人。)
The corrected sentence conveys the same information as the original but in a much more concise manner.(修正后的句子传达出与原文相同的信息,但以更简明的方式表达。)
例题:Though the concept remained a local trend at first,international Repair Cafes,all affiliated with the Dutch Repair Cafe via its website,have since arisen in France,Germany,South Africa,the United,and other countries 44 on top of that.The original provides a......
A、NO CHANGE
B、in addition
C、likewise
D、DELETE the underlined portion,and end the sentence with a period
Answer choices A, B, and C are redundant. The phrase “and other countries” already implies that there are other items on the list. The correct answer is D.(答:A、B和C是多余的。短语“and other countries”已经暗示了清单上还有其他项目。正确的答案是D。)
3、Use the Correct Idiomatic Expression

使用正确的习惯表达
Idiom questions can be challenging because they don't conform to specific rules. You have to rely on your knowledge of specific phrases and standard English conventions to answer these questions correctly. In most idiom questions on the SAT, you'll be asked to determine which preposition to use in a given sentence.
成语问题可能具有挑战性,因为它们不符合特定的规则。你必须依靠你对特定短语和标准英语习惯的了解来正确回答这些问题。在SAT的大多数习语问题中,都会要求您确定在给定句子中使用哪种介词。
Incorrect: After getting suspended, Herbert decided to focus at improving his behavior.(不正确:被停职后,赫伯特决定集中精力改善他的行为。)
Correct: After getting suspended, Herbert decided to focus on improving his behavior.(正确:在被停职后,赫伯特决定把重点放在改善他的行为上。)
There is no rule to learn to help identify this error, but the correct expression is "focus on."(没有规则可以帮助识别这个错误,但是正确的表达式是“focus on”。)
例题:sunlight down into a building’s interior.Glass walls and dividers can also be used to replace solid walls as a means 11 through distributing natural light more freely.
A、NO CHANGE
B、of
C、from
D、DELETE the underlined portion
The correct expression is “as a means of,” and the answer is B. Study the idiom questions from the practice SATs, and review my article on SAT idioms to prepare yourself.
4、Keep Verb Tenses Consistent

保持动词时态一致
The general rule regarding verb consistency is that verbs should remain consistent in tense or form throughout a sentence.
关于动词一致性的一般规则是,动词在时态和形式上保持一致。
Last week, Frank rented a car and drives to Las Vegas.(上周,弗兰克租了一辆车,开车去拉斯维加斯。)
The verb “drives” should be in the past tense. Not only should “drives” be consistent with the past tense “rented,” but also the phrase “Last week” indicates that this was something that happened in the past. This is the corrected version of the sentence:(动词“drives”应该是过去式。不仅“drives”应该与过去的“rented”相一致,而且“Last week”这个短语也表明这是过去发生的事情。这是句子的修正版本:)
Last week, Frank rented a car and drove to Las Vegas.(上周,弗兰克租了一辆车开到拉斯维加斯。)
Also, on the SAT, the verb tenses of surrounding sentences can provide context clues for the proper tense to use in a given sentence to maintain consistency. Here’s another example of a consistency error:(此外,在SAT中,周围句子的动词时态可以提供线索确定正确的时态选择,以保持一致性。这里是一致性错误的另一个例子:)
Trenton lives in a rural area. He enjoyed the peace and quiet.(特伦顿生活在农村地区。他喜欢宁静的生活。)
The shift from the present tense “lives” to the past tense “enjoyed” doesn’t make sense in context. Here is a corrected version of the sentence:(从现在时态“生活”到“过去时态”的转换“在上下文中没有意义”。下面是这个句子的修正版本:)
Trenton lives in a rural area. He enjoys the peace and quiet.(特伦顿生活在农村地区。他喜欢和平与宁静。)
例题:effort.Nutritionists consider Greek yougurt to be a healthy food:it is an excellent source of calcium and protein,serves 7 to be a digestive aid,and 8 it contains few calories in its unsweetende low-and non-fat forms.
A、NO CHANGE
B、containing
C、contains
D、will contain
In this sentence, the verbs “is” and “serves” indicate that the underlined verb should be in the present tense. Answer choices B and D are not present tense verbs. Answer choice A is wrong because the “it” is redundant. The correct answer is C.(在这个句子中,动词“is”和“serves”表示带下划线的动词应该是现在时态。答案选择B和D不是现在时态动词。回答A是错误的,因为“it”是多余的。正确的答案是C.。)
5、Surround Non-Restrictive Clauses and Appositives With Commas

用逗号将非限定性从句或同位语隔开,独立出来
Relative Clauses: Restrictive vs. Non-Restrictive
定语从句:限定性和非限定性
Relative clauses are dependent clauses that describe a noun and start with a relative pronoun or adverb like “who,” “that,” “which,” or “where.” The basic rule is that restrictive clauses shouldn’t be surrounded by commas and non-restrictive clauses should be.
定语从句是从属分句用来描述和限定名词。一般用代词或者副词引导,如“who”、“that”、“which”或“where”。一般规则是。限定性定于从句不用逗号隔开,而非限定性定语从句则要用逗号隔开。
What’s a Restrictive Clause?
什么是限定性从句?
Restrictive clauses are necessary to the meaning of the sentence. You can’t take a restrictive clause out of a sentence without effectively changing the meaning of the sentence.Here’s an example:
限定性从句对于句子要表达的完整含义是不可或缺的。如果限定性从句被去掉,则原句的含义将会发生本质性变化。下面举个例子:
Students who read regularly are prepared for the SAT.(经常保持阅读的同学对SAT更有准备。)
If you remove the clause “who read regularly,” the meaning of the sentence would be substantially changed. You’d be left with “Students are prepared for the SAT.” Because you can’t remove the clause without changing the meaning of the sentence, this clause shouldn’t be surrounded by commas.(如果你去掉“who read regularly”这句话,句子的意义就会发生实质性的变化。你会留下“学生准备SAT考试,“因为你无法删除的条款而不改变句子的意思,这个条款不应该有逗号。)
What’s a Non-Restrictive Clause?(什么是非限制性条款?)
A non-restrictive clause isn't essential to the meaning of the sentence. If you got rid of the clause, you'd have less information, but the overall meaning of the sentence would remain the same. Here's an example sentence with the non-restrictive clause underlined.(非限定性从句对整句话不具备关键作用。如果你去掉了这个从句,你得到的信息就少了,但是句子的整体意思还是一样的。下面是一个例句,加上非限制性从句。)
Joe’s parents, who constantly call him, are very overprotective.(Joe' 父母经常给他打电话有些过度保护了。)
The clause “who constantly call him” adds more information about Joe’s parents, but if it were removed, the meaning of the sentence would be the same. There would be less information about Joe’s parents, but they would still be described as overprotective. This is what the sentence looks like after removing the non-restrictive clause:(“经常给他打电话”这句话增加了乔父母的更多信息,但是如果被删除,这个句子的意思是一样的。会有关于乔的父母的信息较少,但是他们仍然会被描述为过度保护。这就是去掉非限制性从句后的句子的样子:)
Joe’s parents are very overprotective.(Joe's 的父母对他有些保护过度了)
What Is an Appositive?(同位语是什么?)
An appositive is a descriptive phrase that doesn't include a verb. Similar to a non-restrictive clause, an appositive can be removed without changing the meaning of the sentence. Here's an example with the appositive underlined:(同位语是一个描述性的短语,不包括一个动词。类似于一个非限制性从句,同位语删除后不改变句子的意思。下面是一个例子下划线同位语:)
Val, a Wisconsin native, loves fried cheese curds.(瓦迩,一个土生土长的威斯康星人,爱吃炸奶酪凝乳。)
If we get rid of the appositive, the sentence still has the same meaning:(如果我们去掉同位语,句子仍然具有同样的意义:)
Val loves fried cheese curds.(瓦尔喜欢油炸奶酪凝乳。)
例题:scrutiny,Siqueiros painted the final section of the mural,the 3 centerpiece at night.
A、NO CHANGE
B、centerpiece,
C、centerpiece;
D、centerpiece-
In this sentence, “the centerpiece” is an appositive that adds more information about the mural. Because appositives must be surrounded by commas, there should be a comma after “centerpiece.” Immediately, we know that A and C are wrong. In answer choice D, the dash can be used like a comma, but you can’t separate a clause with a comma and a dash. There would have to be a dash after “mural” for answer choice D to be right. The correct answer is B.(在这个句子中,“centerpiece”是增加了壁画的更多信息同位语。因为同位语要用逗号隔开,所以在centerpiece后边要紧跟着一个逗号。随即,我们知道A和C都是错误的。在答案选择D中,破折号可以像逗号一样使用,但不能用逗号和破折号分隔一个从句。在“mural”之后,必须有一个破折号,所以正确的答案是B.。)
6、Commas Can't Separate Two Complete Thoughts

逗号不能分隔两个完整的想法
A comma splice is when two independent clauses, or complete thoughts, are separated by a comma, and comma splices create a grammatical error known as a run-on sentence. A run-on sentence(连写词) occurs when two or more independent clauses aren't separated by the correct punctuation.Here’s an example of a comma splice:
逗号拼接是指两个独立的子句或完整的想法用逗号隔开,而逗号拼接则会产生一个称为运行句的语法错误。当两个或更多个独立的子句没有被正确的标点符号隔开时,就会产生一个运行的句子。下面举个例子:
Ken likes Selena Gomez, she is his favorite singer.
The clauses before and after the comma are complete thoughts that could stand alone as sentences. There are a few ways to correct a comma splice. You can put a conjunction after the comma:
Ken likes Selena Gomez, and she is his favorite singer.(肯喜欢赛琳娜·戈麦斯,她是他最喜欢的歌手。)
Also, you can put a relative pronoun after the comma:(另外,你可以在逗号后面加一个关系代词:)
Ken likes Selena Gomez, who is his favorite singer.(肯喜欢赛琳娜·戈麦斯,他最喜欢的歌手是谁。)
Finally, you can use a semicolon to correctly separate two complete thoughts:(最后,您可以使用分号正确地分隔两个完整的思想:)
Ken likes Selena Gomez; she is his favorite singer.(肯喜欢赛琳娜·戈麦斯,她是他最喜欢的歌手。)
例题:stocked with leather-bound volumes.The couch and chairs,in keeping with the style of the time,are characterized by elegantly curved arms and 16 legs,they are covered in luxurious velvet.A dime-sized portrait of a......
A、NO CHANGE
B、legs,the couch and chairs
C、legs
D、legs,
This is an example of a comma splice. The sentence up until “legs” is a complete thought that could stand alone as a sentence, and the rest of the sentence starting with “they” is also a complete thought. Both A and B are comma splices. Answer choice D is wrong because a conjunction is needed to connect “are characterized” and “are covered.” The correct answer is C.(这是逗号拼接的一个例子。直到“腿”的句子是一个完整的思想,可以独立作为一个句子,其余的句子从“they”开始也是一个完整的思想。A和B是逗号拼接。答案D是错误的,因为需要连接来表示“are characterized”和“are covered”。正确的答案是C.。)
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7、Semicolons Separate Two Complete Thoughts


分号分隔两个完整的想法
Semicolons function like periods; they separate two independent clauses. You should be able to replace semicolons with periods. On the SAT, you may find a randomly placed semicolon, or you may need to replace a comma with a semicolon to fix a comma splice.Here are example sentences with semicolons used correctly and incorrectly:
分号功能像句点;他们分开两个独立的句子。你应该能够用句点替换分号。在SAT上,您可能会找到随机放置的分号,或者您可能需要用分号替换逗号来修复逗号拼接。这里有例句和分号使用正确和不正确的:
Incorrect: Because Teresa wanted to please her family; she became a doctor.(不正确:因为特蕾莎想取悦她的家人,她成了一名医生。)
Correct: Teresa wanted to please her family; she became a doctor.(正确:特蕾莎想取悦她的家人,她成了一名医生。)
The second sentence is correct because the clauses on both sides of the semicolon are independent and could stand alone as sentences.(第二句是正确的,因为分号两边的分句是独立的,可以单独作为句子。)
例题:steady and lucrative position for women.Living independently and demonstrating an intense work 21 ethic;the Harbey Girls became known as a transformative force in the American 22 West.
A、NO CHANGE
B、ethic:
C、ethic,and
D、ethic,
The clause before the semicolon is not a complete thought; therefore, the semicolon is being used incorrectly. Answer choice C unnecessarily adds “and,” and answer choice B is wrong because it places a colon after a dependent clause. The correct answer is D.(分号前的子句不是完整的思想;因此,分号被错误地使用。答案选择C不必要地加上“和”,而选择B是错误的,因为它把冒号放在从属从句之后。正确的答案是D.。)
8、A Colon Must Come After an Independent Clause

冒号必须放置在一个独立的分句后边。
Colons are usually used to introduce lists or explanations. The key rule for colons is that they must come after a complete sentence. If you end the sentence where the colon is placed, the sentence should make sense and be a complete thought.
冒号通常用于介绍列表或解释。冒号的关键规则是,他们必须在一个完整的句子之后。如果你用冒号来结束一个句子。那么这个句子应该能够表达一个完整的意思。
Incorrect: Meena enjoys multiple genres of music like: alternative, rap, heavy metal, and country.(错误:Meena喜欢音乐喜欢多个流派:另类说唱,重金属,和国家。)
Correct: Meena enjoys multiple genres of music: alternative, rap, heavy metal, and country.(正确:Meena喜欢音乐的多个流派:替代,说唱,重金属,和国家。)
The first sentence is incorrect because the part of the sentence that comes before the colon isn’t a complete thought.(第一句是不正确的,因为冒号前面的句子不是完整的思想。)
例题:coworking space a few times a week.Over time,I've gotten to know several of my coworking 32 colleagues:another website developer,a graphic designer,a freelance writer,and several mobile app coders.
A、NI CHAGEN
B、colleagues;
C、colleagues,
D、colleagues
Because the clause before the colon is a complete thought and it's setting up a list, the colon is being used correctly. The types of people listed after the colon are the narrator's colleagues. Because "colleagues" isn't part of the list, you can't substitute the colon for a comma. Also, you can't use a semicolon in place of the colon because there isn't a complete thought after the punctuation. The correct answer is A.(因为冒号前面的子句是一个完整的思想,并且设置了一个列表,所以冒号被正确使用。冒号后面列出的类型是叙述者的同事。因为“同事”不是列表中的一部分,所以用逗号代替冒号。另外,不能用分号代替冒号,因为标点符号后面没有完整的思想。正确的答案是A.。)
9、Use Apostrophes Correctly to Form Possessives

正确使用撇号来形成拥有者
The SAT tests you on how to use apostrophes to correctly form possessives. Luckily, the rules for forming possessives are pretty straightforward. If the word is singular or plural but doesn’t end in “s,” then you add an “s” after the apostrophe to form a possessive.Here are a couple of examples:
SAT考查你如何使用撇号来正确地形成所有格。幸运的是,形成所有格的规则是非常简单的。如果这个词是单数或复数,但不以“s”结尾,那么在撇号后加一个“s”形成一个所有格。下面是几个例子:
I shall be paying a visit to the men’s restroom.(我要去男厕所看看。)
My computer’s monitor is rather dirty.(我的电脑显示器相当脏。)
To create a possessive for a plural word that does end in “s,” just add an apostrophe after the “s.” Check it out:(为以S结尾的复数名词创建所有格,只需在S后边加上撇号即可:)
Juan thinks his parents’ rules are too strict.(胡安认为他父母的规定太严格了。)
Also, only use apostrophes for possessives or contractions. Contractions are formed when you combine two words. Examples include it’s (it is), don’t (do not), and isn’t (is not). Don’t use apostrophes to create plural nouns.(另外,只使用撇号为possessives或contractions。contractions是由两个词组合而成的。例子包括它(是),不(不),而不是(不是)。不要使用撇号创造名词的复数形式。)
例题:Circadian rhythms,which are controlled by the 4 bodies biological clocks,influence body temperature,hormone release,cycles of sleep and wakefulness,and other bodily functions
A、NO CHANGE
B、bodies' biological clocks',
C、bodie's biological clocks',
D、bodie's biological clock's,
Because the body is is being discussed in general terms, we should use the singular possessive in this sentence; the sentence is referring to the biological clocks of the body. We can immediately get rid of A because “bodies” is a plural noun; it’s not in the possessive form.(因为the body是泛指,所以我们应该在这个句子中使用单数所有格,这个句子指的是身体的生物钟。我们可以立即去掉A,因为“身体”是一个复数名词,它不是所有格形式。)
Also, answer choice B is wrong because bodies’ is the plural possessive form. Additionally, there shouldn’t be an apostrophe after the “s” in “clocks.” Don’t use apostrophes to form plural nouns; only use apostrophes for possessives and contractions. Similarly, answer choice D is wrong because of the apostrophe before the “s” in clocks; the correct answer is C.(答案选择B是错误的,因为身体是复数所有格形式。另外,在clock's这里不应该使用撇号。不要使用撇号形成复数名词;只使用撇号为所有格和收缩。同样,答案D是错误的因为之前同样D选项也是错误的,也是因为clock's这里的撇号;正确答案是C。)
10、Subjects and Verbs Must Agree

主语和动词必须同意
Subjects and verbs must agree, meaning that you must use the singular form of a verb with a singular subject and the plural form of a verb with a plural subject.Here’s an example:
主语和动词必须统一,这意味着你必须使用动词的单数形式与单数主语和复数主语动词的复数形式。下面举个例子:
Incorrect: High school students loves learning grammar rules.(错误:中学生喜欢学习语法规则。)
Correct: High school students love learning grammar rules.(正确:高中生喜欢学习语法规则。)
If the verb is in the present tense and the subject is in the third person (he/she/it/they), the verb usually ends in “s” in the singular form and doesn’t in the plural form. In the example sentence, the subject is “students,” which is plural; therefore the verb should be in the plural form.(如果动词是现在时,主语是第三人称(他/她/她/他们),第三人称单数后边的动词通常要在结尾加上S,而复数则不用。在例句中,主语是“学生”,它是复数形式,因此动词应该复数形式。)
On the SAT, subject verb agreement questions can be more difficult because there may be a phrase separating the subject from the verb. Check out this example:(在SAT中,主谓一致的问题可能更难,因为可能有一个短语把主语和动词分开。看看这个例子:)
Incorrect: The members of the committee meets every Tuesday.(不正确:委员会成员每星期二开会。)
Correct: The members of the committee meet every Tuesday.(正确:委员会成员每星期二开会。)
The subject of the sentence is “members,” which is plural. Therefore, the verb should be in the plural form. The prepositional phrase “of the committee” separates the subject from the verb. If a verb is underlined on the SAT, make sure that you identify the subject that corresponds with that verb to ensure that the subject and verb agree. Also, keep in mind that a subject can never be part of a prepositional phrase.(句子的主语是“members”,复数。因此,动词应该是复数形式。委员会的介词短语把主语与动词分开。如果一个动词在SAT中有下划线,确保你确定了与那个动词相对应的主语,以确保主语和动词一致。另外,记住一个主语决不能是介词短语的一部分。)
例题:that comes to mind.Yet some of the earliest known works of art,including paintings and drawings tens of thousands of years old found on cave walls in Spain and Fance,36 portrays animals.
A、NO CHANGE
B、portraying
C、portray
D、has portrayed
To determine if there’s a subject verb agreement error, we have to identify the subject that corresponds with the verb “portrays.” What portrays animals? The works of art do. The phrase in between the commas separates the subject from the verb. The subject is plural because “works” is plural and “of art” is a prepositional phrase. The plural form of “portrays” is “portray,” and the correct answer is C. Answer choices B and D are not plural verbs; “portraying” is a gerund that would create a fragment, and “has portrayed” is the singular form of the present perfect tense.(要确定是否有主语动词一致性错误,我们必须确定与动词“portrays”相对应的主语。艺术作品。逗号之间的短语把主语与动词分开。主语是复数,因为“works”是复数,而“of art”是介词短语。复数形式的“portrays”是“portray”,正确答案是C选项B和D都不是复数动词;“has portrayed”是一个动名词,将创建一个片段,和“portray”是现在完成时态的单数形式。)
11、Modifiers Must Be Next to What They're Modifying

修饰语必须紧跟在他们要修饰的词后边
The general rule regarding modifiers is that they must be next to what they’re modifying. The most common type of modifier error on the SAT is a dangling modifier. When a sentence begins with a modifying phrase, the introductory phrase must be immediately followed by a comma and then the noun the phrase is describing. Here’s an example of a dangling modifier:
修饰语的一般规则是,它必须紧跟在它要修饰的词的后边。SAT考试中在修饰语方面较为常见的错误类型是无明 确对象修饰语。当一个句子以一个修饰短语开始时,引导短语必须紧跟着一个逗号,然后是短语所描述的名词。下面是一个悬挂修饰语的例子:
A determined writer, Jessica’s goal is to get her first novel published this year.(作为一个坚定的作家,杰西卡的目标是在今年出版她的第一部小说。)
The way the sentence is written makes it seem like Jessica’s goal is a determined writer. There are a couple of ways to fix the sentence. You can place the noun that is being modified right after the comma:(写这句话的方式让人觉得杰西卡的目标是一个坚定的作家。有多种方法来修正这个句子。你可以把正在修改的名词放在逗号后面:)
A determined writer, Jessica has a goal of getting her first novel published this year.(作为一个坚定的作家,杰西卡的目标是在今年出版她的第一部小说。)
Or you can place the subject in the introductory phrase:(或者你可以把这个主题放在引言中:)
Because Jessica is a determined writer, her goal is to get her first novel published this year.(因为杰西卡是一个坚定的作家,她的目标是在今年出版她的第一部小说。)
例题:can be wound up,"21Dotted with pin-sized knobs,another visitor noticed my fascination with a tiny writing desk and its drawers."All of those little drawers pull out.
A、NO CHANGE
B、Another visitor,dotted with pin-sized knobs,noticed my fascination with a tiny writing desk and its drawers.
C、Another visitor dotted with pin-sized knobs noticed my fascination with a tiny writing desk and its drawers.
D、Another visitor noticed my fascination with a tiny writing desk and its drawers,dotted with pin-sized knobs.
This sentence makes it seem like the visitor was dotted with pin-sized knobs. Logically, the sentence should indicate that the drawers were dotted with pin-sized knobs. Similarly, answer choices B and C are misplaced modifiers that infer that the there was a visitor dotted with knobs.The correct answer is D.(这句话让人觉得客人好像是用小的把手点缀的。从逻辑上说,这句话应该表明抽屉里有小的把手。同样地,答案B和C是错误的修饰词,可以推断出有一位来访者点缀着knobs。正确答案是D。)
12、Pronouns Must Agree With Their Antecedents in Number

代词必须和他们的先导词在数上一致
This rule means that a plural pronoun must refer to a plural noun and a singular pronoun must refer to a singular noun.Here's an example of a pronoun number agreement error:
这个规则表示复数代词必须指复数名词,单数代词必须指单数名词。这里是一个代词数字一致性错误的例子:
Kristin sold their car. (错误例子:克里斯汀出售他们的汽车。)
The pronoun “their” is referring to the car of Kristin. Because Kristin is one person and “their” is a plural pronoun, this sentence has a pronoun agreement error. (代词“他们”指的是Kristin的车。因为Kristin是一个人,而“他们的”是一个复数代词,这个句子有一个代词协议错误。)
Kristin sold her car.(正确应该是:克里斯汀卖车给她。)
例题:eventually rot.While 1-MCP keeps apples tight and crisp for months,it also limits 26 their scent production.This may not be much of a problem with.
A、NO CHANGE
B、there
C、its
D、it's
It’s easy to make a careless mistake on this question because you may see the singular pronoun “it” and assumed the underlined pronoun should be singular as well. However, the pronouns have different antecedents. The word “it” refers to 1-MCP, which is singular, and “their” refers to apples, which is plural. The possessive pronoun agrees with the antecedent, and there’s no error.(在这个问题上很容易犯一个粗心的错误,因为你可能会看到单数代词“它”,并且假设下划线的代词也应该是单数。然而,代词有不同的先行词。单词“it”指的是1 - mcp,这是单数,而“their”指的是苹果,这是复数。所有格代词与先行词一致,没有错误。)
Answer choice A is correct. Answer choice C is a singular possessive pronoun, D is the contraction of “it is,” and B is a homophone of the correct answer, but it’s the wrong word.(写,而B则是正确答案的同音,但这个词是错的。)
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